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Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

Charles Darwin was an English naturalist renowned for his documentation of evolution and for his theory of its operation, known as Darwinism. He was born at Shrewsbury, England on February on 12, 1809. He was the son of Robert Waring Darwin, who was a popular doctor, and the grandson of the physician Erasmus Darwin, the author of Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life, and of the artisan-entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood. His family was happy, contented and cultured. Charles lost his mother when he was just eight year old. Within the educated and cultured family, Charles was considered very mediocre at studies. The head school teacher would consider him a dull and unintelligent student. However, his father and grandfather had fond hopes for him. His father wished he become a doctor, however his wish was never fulfilled. Many believed that Charles had poor ability to understand or comprehend. Some even considered him to be dumb. In reality, Charles was a very imaginative child. Though not interested in the subjects taught at school, he was interested in the study of nature. He had a very sharp and observant eye.

Darwin was sent to Edinburough University along with his elder brother for higher education. He was again mediocre in his studies but he excelled at the student debates, particularly on evolution. During the debates he would argue and put across his point forcefully. His ability to analyse and his intelligence were distinguishable from others. Having failed at the university after spending two years, his father felt his dream of seeing him a doctor vanish fast. Sons of cultured families were in those days expected to study and he was sent to Cambridge. Here, he began studying religion to become a bishop, however he was not at all interested in it. He loved to observe small insects and living organisms. He would never get tired collecting them, observing them and writing about them. At 22, he received a degree in religion, but he never wanted to take up missionary activities. He came in contact with a reputed professor of botony John Henslow, at the University. Henslow gave a recommendation letter and told him to meet Captain Robert Fritzroy of HMS Beagle, a 235-ton ocean liner. In this manner Darwin was able to escape from the missionary activities.

HMS Beagle was gigantic government owned ship. It was commissioned to inspect, study and survey the South American Coast. Darwin got an offer as Naturalist on the ship. He was supposed to pay for the expenses on board. As he loved the work, his father very reluctantly agreed to pay for the voyage. In 1831, the ship set sail. It was to return within two years but actually returned after live years to England, in the year 1836.

Darwin was very fine observer and investigator. He would never tire while collecting specimen and writing down his observations in copious notes. He would collect trunk-loads of specimen. For five years he continued the survey of the American coastline. HMS Beagle finally reached the south western tip about 800 kms away, where the famous natural Galapagos Islands exist. These islands could be termed as nature’s biggest laboratory. Here, Darwin was able to discover vital links to the origin of several species. He found unique species of living organisms and also learned about the detailed changes they had undergone during the process of evolution. Darwin noted that each island had snakes, birds and a variety of other animals. There were dissimilarities among the same species also. One of the islanders pointing at the tortoise, claimed to even identify the particular island to which it belonged. All these bits of information came in handy later when he conducted indepth research.

Darwin read a book by Thomas Malthus ‘Essay on population’, which was published in 1838, that cleared his doubts. During the voyage, he had observed and collected several species of plants and living organisms. He had seen and collected fossils too. All this was very useful for his research later. He was certain that be it animals or mankind, all had to fight for food, survival and evolution into further species while adapting to the environment. 20 years after the historic voyage and extensive studies, he arrived at some conclusions. He concluded that changes taking place within our body get destroyed. This is how different species evolve and earlier ones become extinct.

In 1858, Malaya’s famous naturalist Alfred Wallace published an essay: ‘What are the principles of nature that control the changes in living organisms?’ This essay had many findings and thoughts common to those of Darwin. Friends advised Darwin to publish his findings too. It was then that he decided to write, Print and publish his thoughts, analysis and conclusions and present them to the world. In July 1858, a copy each of Wallace’s work and Darwin’s essay separately reached the Linian Society at London and were read by its members. The following year Darwin’s book ‘Origin of Species’ was published. Darwin had attempted to explain the principles of evolution. However, the book generated countroversy that went on for a long time. Many works criticizing Darwin’s theory were published. In one particular essay, a priest of Oxford criticized Darwin’s theory. Darwin was unwell by the time he returned to England. He suffered from nagging headache and fits. At 70, he wanted to go on a sea expedition, but lacked courage. He had married Emma Wedgewood, His cousin in 1839 and settled down in small village near kent. He never had to struggle for a livelihood. He spent the rest of his life experimenting in his laboratory classifying the specimen he had collected, in gardening and study. He was cheerful and very popular due to his nature.

This great and famous nature lover, father of the Evolution theory, died on April 16, 1882 at 72. His grave is located next to the famous physicist and mathematician Issac Newton in the Westminster Abbey. England and the world honoured him this way. It can be said that if he were to visit the Galapagos Islands today, he would feel sad because he would find many unique species extinct, which he had seen in the 1830’s trip. Giant tortoises and certain species of monkeys are hard to find. Large aerodromes have been constructed on these islands. Aircraft noise pollution has suppressed the sweet chatter of birds forever. Human interference and the so-called modern cultures have contributed in permanently destroying nature.














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Sir Edward Jenner (1749 – 1823)

Dr. Edward Jenner was the inventor of the smallpox vaccine. He was born on May 17, 1749 in Gloucestershire, England. His father was a vicar. Edward was admitted to the local primary school, where he turned out to be a good student especially interest in biology. Gradually, He began studying to become a doctor. At that time it was customary for a medical student to assist an experienced doctor and seek his guidance. He sought training under the experienced surgeon Dr Daniel Ludlow. At 21, Jenner Joined the St. George Hospital in London to undergo training under the great surgeon and anatomist Dr. John Hunter.

It was a time when the field of medicine was in its nascent stage. Doctors experimented with herbs and used them to cure a disease. When an epidemic struck any region, millions of people lost their lives. In Europe alone, 60 million people succumbed to various diseases between the periods of 1700-1800. People considered such contagious disease as the Lord’s wrath curse. In 1721, smallpox had infected almost half the population of Boston in USA, 10 per cent of whom lost their lives. Today, this disease has been eradicated from the face of the earth. The Vaccine has played an important role in controlling and curbing this disease. All credit goes to Jenner for discovering the smallpox vaccine.

Dr. John Hunter of the St George Hospital was an inquisitive and restless soul. He would conduct various experiments, which he would try on himself first. Unfortunately, he became a victim of an incurable disease, which cut short his life. His students underwent the same kind of rigour. Hunter became Jenner’s lifelong friend and guide. After graduating from St George Hospital, on the advice of Hunter, Jenner returned to Gloucestershire to practice medicine. Hunter and Jenner continued their correspondence for long. Hunter believed that the rural-bred Jenner would be more comfortable working in a rural area than an urban set-up. Modern medicines were still a far cry in those times. Doctors prescribed herbs and people preferred homemade remedies to combat diseases. They knew that some plants and vegetables had miraculous healing powers. Degetelis was considered to be a vital medicine for heart-related diseases. Like India, local remedies were sought there.

Some diseases attack a person once in a lifetime, for example, German measles. Parents would feel relieved if this disease attacked their daughters at a young age, since it would create complications at a later age. Once this disease attacked at a young age, it would not attack again. Besides, it was easier to cure this disease when the patient is young.

Similar belief prevailed in the case of smallpox. In the East, to escape the curse of smallpox it was a practice to inject the germs of smallpox in the body to weaken its deadly effect. Unfortunately, some lost their lives in the process.

The village fold of Gloucestershire found that a patient of cowpox did not catch smallpox. This disease first invariably comes to our mind: Why only cows and not horses or any other animal? Encouraged by Hunter, Jenner concentrate his research on cowpox. He examined 27 patients suffering from this disease. He published his findings in 1796. He conducted a unique and bold experiment. After convincing the parents, Jenner injected an eight – year- old boy Jimmy Flipps with lymph from a cowpox vesicle. It made the healthy boy sick. He followed this with injections taken from smallpox pustules. The boy did not develop smallpox. When Jenner announced his findings, there was upheaval in society. There were some who criticized Jenner for interfering with the natural process of life and some who congratulated him for his achievements. Some even said it was no big achievement and still others tried to limitate him and conducted experiments without proper knowledge, killing patients rather than curing them in the process.

When the dust settled, Jenner detailed his discovery-presenting the world with the smallpox vaccine. The world hounoured him and the parliament conferred knighthood on him. He was now Sir Edward Jenner- Besides, he was awarded $ 20,000. Oxford University bestowed on him an honorary degree. The Czar of Russia gifted him a gold ring and Napoleon congratulated him for his path-breaking discovery. A group of Indians based in America honoured him with gifts and publicly lauded his achievement. The world will remain indebted to Jenner for his vaccine that has contributed to a healthy generation. We should always ensure that every healthy child is inoculated for all- smallpox, Chickenpox, polio and diphtheria.

Jenner spent his later life at his country house in Gloucestershire. He died in January. 1823. His vaccine has ensured a smallpox- free society. Various vaccines developed for different diseases have helped children to be resistant to diseases. Dr. Jonas Salk is one such precursor to develop the polio vaccine and contribute towards a polio-free world.













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Prof. Tribhuvandas Gajjar (1863- 1920)

Tribhuvandas Kalyandas Gajjar was India’s great scientist and Gujrat’s first and foremost chemist. He was born in August, 1863 in a well-to-do and prosperous Gajjar family of Surat. His uncle, Atmaram Gajjar was well-known personality. Atmarambhai’s ancestor, who belonged to carpenter family, had earlier settled in Dhanasuthar’s pole in Ahmedabad. A square named Gajjar square still exists there.

Tribhuvandas's father kalyandas was a well-known sculptor. He had also written a book called ‘The Art of Sculpture’. Tribhuvandas was the youngest of four sons and two daughters of Kalyandas. Tribhuvan was an intelligent child. He cleared every class with high grades. His father was pleased with his brightness. At home, he taught Tribhuvan the art of sculpting. Thus, Tribhuvan learnt intricate wood carving and obtained knowledge of the traditional art of sculpting from his father. When he was 16, he cleared the matriculation examination with good marks. While at school his interest turned towards science. For higher education, he joined the science stream of Mumbai’s (Bombay’s) Elphinstone College. He got 75 % marks in B Sc with Chemistry as his principle subject. For this achievement, he was appointed junior fellow during his postgraduate studies and later, senior fellow, in the college. As a junior fellow, he taught chemistry and physics to fresh admitted students. After that he completed his MA from Mumbai University.

India’s economic condition had worsened during the British rule. With the intent of helping society during these trying times, he came to Surat and started the cottage industry school. His aim was to guide the youth in various skilled work based on science, ultimately to make them self-reliant. But later on, due to lack of government aid and funds, he had to wind up this school. Meanwhile, he was invited by the Mumbai Government to join Sindh College in Karachi as professor of chemistry with salary of Rs. 300 per month. He was also invited by vadodara (Baroda) college for the same post with salary of Rs. 200 per month. Since the Maharaja of Vadodara, Sir Sayajirao Gaikwad encouraged cottage industry. Tribhuandas decided to join Vadodara College even though the salary would have been less than what he would have got at Sindh College.

After joining Vadodara College, he won the hearts of all with his knowledge, enthusiasm and dedication. There, he skillfully carried on his work. Some time later, an order was issued to send him abroad along with a few bright students for further studies. He was to be sent abroad for further study in farming and after his return, he would be made deputy collector in the revenue department. He convinced his superiors not to send him abroad and showed his readiness to take up printing and dyeing work in the state. For this purpose, he carried out a survey and set up a laboratory. He started giving scientific training to the youth of the families engaged in dyeing and printing. There was a good demand for these trained artisans. In this venture, he received support of the Maharaja and the people as well. He met the Maharaja and apprised him of the importance of setting up a training school like kala Bhavan for cottage industry.

In June 1890, Kala Bhavan was established in Vadodara and its entire responsibility rested on Gajjar’s shoulders. A special fund for this purpose was also handed over to him. In a short time span, 800 students had joined the school. Due to hard work, he introduced courses in carpentry, drawing, architecture, building construction, weaving, dyeing, chemistry, physics, etc., and started imparting knowledge. He provided free accommodation to economically weak students. It was his earnest desire that our country should match other countries in cottage industry and also in the field of science. After overcoming teething problems, he started thinking ahead. He found it essential that necessary study material be written and published in the vernacular language. He also obtained the Maharaja’s permission in this regard. Maharaja Sayajirao granted him permission to spend up to Rs. 50, 000 on that venture. For this purpose, he also developed a dictionary. Professor Gajjar also knew the German language. He translated German books and periodicals on the cottage industries in Gujarati and published them in his magazine Rangrahasya (Colour sectets). This helped in teaching new techniques to the students. Gradually, the demand for students who passed out from kala Bhavan increased. In five years, the kala Bhavan became the soul of Gajjar. But, due to false propaganda by some envious elements he had to resign from the institute in 1896. He then went to Mumbai.

After coming to Mumbai, he joined Wilson College as professor of chemistry. There, he contributed towards improvements in the field of education and modernized the curriculum. Meanwhile, Mumbai was in the grip of plague and no medicine proved to be effective. Gajjar developed a medicine proved to be very effective. He was opposed to the idea of grabbing the opportunity to patent the medicine and make some fast money. He placed the medicine before the world. His only intention was to serve the poor people. In 1898, at his own expense, he set up a private laboratory named Technochemical Laboratory. Gradually, he expanded the institute with more facilities. Later, Mumbai University and Grant Medical College granted recognition to this laboratory for their students.

Meanwhile, in 1898, an incident took place that made Gajjar famous the world over. It so happened that in mumbai’s walled city area on Esplanade Road. Someone had blackened the face of the marble statue of Queen Victoria. The colour was permanent and it was difficult to remove it. The British government was in a hurry to clean up the statue, but they were unsuccessful. Experts from the world over were called in, but failed to clean it up. At this stage, Gajjar showed his willingness to remove the stains. The government summoned Gajjar and asked him to clean up a part of the statue. He successfully did it and went on to remove all the stains. Newspapers all over the world hailed professor Gajjar’s efforts. He became world-famous and gained recognition internationally as a chemist. After this, Gajjar made such an amazing discovery that he received both wealth and recognition. He developed a new process to clean up pearls that had turned yellow. When the great Indian chemist Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray heard the news of Gajjar’s astonishing achievement he congratulated him.

Professor Gajjar earned lakhs of rupees from this venture. He then set up the ‘Alembic Chemistry Works’ in vadodara with help from his student Srikoti Bhaskar. Bhaskar was then sent to Germany to gain specialized knowledge. Meanwhile, he read litterateur Govardhanram Tripathi’s novel Saraswatichandra, and was impressed by the plan of kalyan village. He met this great Gujarati novelist in person and they became good friends. He started one such scheme near Andheri. There, he began developing the cottage industry and encouraged traditional art for the welfare of the people. Gajjar then, had plenty of money. Due to wealth, many disputes took place within the family that reached the court. Though he won the case, he lost a lot of money and peace of mind. Meanwhile, his wife passed away. He started feeling lonely. After the death of his wife, he never felt happy and cheerful. Then came the unexpected news of the death of his student. Srikoti Bhaskar. He spent his health and wealth to keep alembic chemical works stable and sustained. Life became difficult and worries affected his health. He was a depressed and dejected man. Gradually, he became a victim of sleeplessness. He had become very lonely. This great scientist was really moved when he once had the opportunity to meet Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi advised him to spend his remaining life peacefully and happily.

Gajjar was his own doctor, but could not sustain his lifeline. On july 16, 1920, this great soul departed for his heavenly abode. Thus, this great chemist from Gujrat, after spending his hard earned money for the selfare of the people and gifting the laboratory he set up to the National Medical College, took leave from this world. We pay our heartfelt tribute to this great scientist and worthy son of Gujarat.

J Robert Oppenheimer (1904 – 1967)

J Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He was born in New York on April 22, 1904. His parents, Julius S. Oppenheimer, a wealthy German textile merchant, and Ella Friedman, an artist, were of Jewish descent but did not observe the religious traditions. He was fond of collecting rock samples since his childhood. He also liked to study microorganisms with a homemade microscope. Painting and music were his forte. His parents were well-to-do German-Jewish immigrants who had made fortune by importing textiles in New York City. They paid proper attention to their son’s needs and admitted him to the best school.

When he was 12, chemistry attracted his attention. His father encouraged him by setting up a small laboratory at home and by engaging a good tutor for him. After clearing his school grade with a first class first, he traveled to Europe with his father. Here, he was exposed to various religions and cultures. During this period he also gained command over Greek, Spanish, French, Italian and Latin languages. Returning from Europe, 19 year old Oppenheimer entered Harvard University and completed his course in three years instead of the usual four and graduated with a first class. At 22, he joined the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University. Here, he got an opportunity to work with Rutherford, who had contributed immensely towards the study of radioactivity and nuclear physics. He was working on the immense energy produced by the fission of the nucleus of an atom. Oppenheimer also came in contact with the great physicist Max Born and Paul Dirac. On Born’s advice and invitation, Oppenheimer decided to go to Gottingen University, Germany to work under the great mathematician. Both worked together to master mathematics and produced important research papers on quantum theories. Oppenheimer completed his doctorate there. He then moved to Zurich and worked there for some time. In Europe, Oppenheimer studied under Werner Heisenberg also. In 1928, he returned to America, a successful 24-year old young man.

In America, he worked as professor at California University at Berkeley and the California Institute of Technology. He got married and settled there. He concentrated totally on academics. Besides, he worked on atomic fission. He taught advance physics and mathematics to the students. His reputation attracted students and scientists from various countries. In association with a colleague Mellah Phillips, he put forward the Oppenheimer-Philips Theory. The theory was the base for the discovery of heavy hydrogen nucleus.

World War II began in 1939. Einstein and other scientists had understood the aim of Nazi Germany. They had apprised President Roosevelt about the possibility of German and Italian scientists working towards making of an atom bomb. Such a bomb could destroy the world and establish Nazi rule over the world. They felt that it was necessary for America to make such a bomb and end the World War II. The Manhattan Project, a secret mission to build an atom bomb, was launched in 1942. Oppenheimer was appointed to head the entire project, as he was the head of the Manhattan Committee. Los Alamos in New Mexico was choosen as the place for producing the atom bomb. The top-secret project began with the best scientific minds getting to act together. The group of scientists included Enrico Fermi, Neils Bohr, Hans Bethe, Arthur Compton, Von Neumann and many others. President Roosevelt had earmarked $ 2 billion for the project. The work on chain reaction was carried out at Chicago University. About 75000 miners were busy extracting uranium at Oakridge, Tennessee. Oppenheimer was to look into every aspect of this confidential project.

July 16, 1945 was set for the test day of the atom bomb. A 32 ton 100 feet steel tower was erected on Gyro Hill and the bomb placed on it. At 5.30 pm from a control room 14.5 km away in the desert, a remote control button was pressed. The project head Oppenheimer and all the scientists were present at the site. As the button was pressed, a gigantic fireball rose up to 7 miles in the sky and an ear-splitting blast was heard. It was heard 450 miles away in Amarillo. Texas. The 100 feet steel tower melted away and the sand in that area was converted into green glass. All life in a radius of 1.5 km had been totally destroyed. These things happened due to the immense energy produced by the atom bomb. The scientists were satisfied with the result. Their aim was to put an end to World was II. Keeping the larger picture of the people in mind, the test was kept a secret, as it was not advisable to publish the news at that stage.

On August 6, 1945, American aircraft dropped atom bombs on Hiroshima and later on August 9, 1945 on Nagasaki in Japan. The destruction was unimaginable, but at same time, it forced Japan to surrender immediately, putting an end to World War II. When the war ended, Oppenheimer appealed to the government to use atomic energy only for the betterment of society. In 1947, Oppenheimer was appointed director of the Institute for advanced study at Princeton. New Jersey and became Albert Einstein’s successor. On Oppenheimer’s recommendation, President Kennedy announced the $ 50000 ‘Atomic Energy Commission Award’ in 1963. The award was later renamed ‘Enrico Fermi Award’ to immortalize the great scientist. This award is given every year to a deserving scientist.

Oppenheimer died due to throat cancer on February 18, 1967. He never regretted his association with the Manhattan Project. He believed that whatever he did was to help his nation win over Hitler and the Nazis. Thereafter, he always insisted on the peaceful use of atomic energy to help make the world a better place. Today, the world remembers him as the father of the first atomic bomb, who completed this project successfully within a short span of three years.














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The first nuclear test which Oppenheimer designated Trinity

Dr. D.N. Wadia (1883 – 1969)

Dr. Darashaw Nosherwan Wadia was known as the “father of Indian Geology”. He was born on October 25, 1883, in Surat, Gujrat. He was the son of Nosherwan and Cooverbai Wadia. His family was traditionally involved in shipbuilding. Wadia completed his primary schooling in Surat. As a child, drawing interested him. His family settled in Vadodara (Baroda) when he was 12 years old. He continued his schooling there and went on to complete his graduate and post-graduate studies from vadodara College. At graduate level his subjects included biology and geology.

It was a time when geology and geological survey had not yet developed in India. In India, geological survey was established in 1851. A post-graduation degree in geology was only offered at Kolkata and Chennai Universities. Through reading, Wadia had developed an interest in geology and through self-study and introspection, he moved forward in this direction. In 1906, when he was just 23, he joined Jammu’s Mahatma Gandhi College (Prince of Wales College) as professor of geology. During Vacations, in the snow-clad Himalayas, he carried out underground research on minerals, stones and fossils. Gradually, his interest, study and research in the subject increased. He wrote a book titled Geological Science for the benefit of students. When the book was published, his fame in this field spread all over the country. In 1921, he resigned as professor of this college and joined the geological survey department of the Geological Survey of India (GSI) at the age of 38 years. At the institute too, the Himalayan region remained the centre of his research.

In 1938, at the age of 55, Wadia resigned from the GSI department and went to Sri Lanka. It was a time when the British ruled on India and Sri Lanka. The British government had appointed Dr. Wadia as the head of the Sri Lankan geological survey department. There he completed the task assigned to him and after appropriately training his colleagues, he returned to India. On his return, he joined the central government as director of land survey department and later served as director of Bureau of Mines- Minerals and Ores. After India’s independence, Wadia set about the task of promoting science. In the Atomic Energy Commission set up under the leadership of Dr. Homi Bhabha, he was made director of the department handling minerals. He was instrumental in holding the 22nd conference of the International Geological Congress in New Delhi, the first ever in India. Wadia presided over the function.

Dr. Wadia toured abroad and carried out important research work on the Central Asian desert regions. He also provided detailed information about its mineral wealth. His views about the birth of the desert regions received tremendous response from all over the world. According to him, one million years ago the Ice Age existed. At present, icy cold rivers at the North Pole and the snow-covered areas were the result of that age. In his book, ‘Geology of Nanga Parbat and Gilgit District’, he has provided detailed information about the geological survey work he carried out in this area. Besides, in his book ‘Structure of Himalayas’, he has discussed elaboratory the geological formation and internal edifice of the Himalayas. In his detailed research on the Himalayas, he studied the rocks on the 27000 feet (about 8000 metres) high Nanga Parbhat and the pebbles obtained from its snow-melted rivers and got ample know-how of the region. Thus, he was a tough and adventurous man. The geological survey he carried out in the Himalayas shows his strong determination and perseverance. Half a century later his life of learning was one that would put any youth to shame.

The entire stretch from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, Assam to Karachi and Baluchistan, including lakes and oceans was his area of study. This entire stretch of area was like an open book to him. Beyond textbooks he had gained knowledge through discovery and analysis. He was a storehouse of Knowledge. He also delivered his knowledge at various seminars. Experts have accepted Wadia’s view on the geological structure of areas like Poonch and Punjab, the rise and fall of the Himalayas from Assam to Kashmir and its range of peaks is indeed a revelation. According to him, the Hindu Kush, with its unique mountain range, has no relation to the Himalayas.

Among his many writings, the Geology of India and Burma is a reference volume that gives wonderful information. In Geological Survey Institute libraries around the world this volume occupies a revered place. This volume is taken into account to understand the geological set-up of India. Wadia was also a successful scientific authority on fossils. His important fossils discoveries include animals without bones, huge animals like elephants, besides skull pieces of stygordon Ganesa. Today the uranium enriched area in Bihar is very useful to the Atomic Energy Commission, thanks to the direction given by Wadia.

In 1957, he was elected the Fellow of the Royal Society of London. He was the first Indian geological scientist to receive this honour. He was twice elected president of the Indian Science Congress. The prestigious meghnad Saha Medal was awarded to him by National Science Academy. Kolkata’s Asiatic Society honoured him with the Bose Medal. The Indian government conferred on him the Padma Bhushan.

On june 15, 1969, this great Indian scientist died at the age of 85. On 23 October, 1984, the post and Telegraph Department of India issued a stamp in honour of Dr. D. N. Wadia. We salute this valiant son and pride of Gujrat.





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