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Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955)

Sir Alexander Fleming was a biologist and pharmacologist. His best achievements are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicilliu notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain. In 1999, In Time Magazine name Fleming one of the 100 most important people of the 20th Century for his discovery of penicillin, and stated, “It was a discovery that would change the course of history.

He was born on 6th of August, 1881 at Lochfield near Darvel in Ayrshire, Scotland. He was the son of Hugh Fleming. His father died when Alexander was just seven year old. He attended louden Moor School, Darvel School, and Kilmarnock Academy & after that he went London to work as a shipping clerk. He spent four years in a shipping office and after that moved to St. Mary’ Medical school, London University. He qualified with distinction in 1906 and began research at St. Mary’s under the guidance of Sir Almroth wright; a pioneer in vaccine therapy. He obtained M.B.B.S. (London), with Gold Medal in 1908, and became a lecturer at St. Mary’s until 1914. He was elected Professor of the school in 1928 and Emeritus Professor of Bacteriology, University of London in 1948. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1943 and knighted in 1944.

Alexander Fleming died on 11th March 1955. He is buried in St Paul's Cathedral.

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Alexander Graham Bell (1847 - 1922 )

Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone. He was born on March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland. His mother, who was deaf, was a musician and a painter. His father, who taught deaf people how to speak, invented ‘Visible Speech’. Alexander only attended school for five years; from the time he was 10 until he was 14, but he never stopped learning. He read the books in his grandfather’s library and studied tutorials.

While Alexander was searching for telephone, Thomas Watson became an associate of Bell. Watson made parts and built models of Bell’s inventions. One day, while they were working, Bell accidently heard the sound of a plucked reed coming over the telegraph wire. The next day he transmitted the famous words, “Mr. Watson, come here. I want you!” A few months later on feb. 14, 1876, he applied for a patent on his telephone.

He died on August 2, 1922 in Canada at the age of 75.

Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone

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Archimedes (c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC)

Archimedes was a great mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer of his age. But generally, he is considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time. . His contributions in geometry revolutionised the subject and his methods anticipated the integral calculus 2,000 years before Newton and Leibniz. He was also a thoroughly practical man who invented a wide variety of machines including pulleys and the Archimidean screw pumping device.

He was born 287 BC in the seaport city of Syracuse, Sicily. He was the son of Phidias who was an astronomer. Though he had many great inventions, Archimedes considered his purely theoretical work to be his true calling. His accomplishments are numerous. Unhappy with the unwieldy Greek number system, he devised his own that could accommodate larger numbers more easily. He invented the entire field of hydrostatics with the discovery of the Archimendes’ Principle. However, his greatest invention was integral calculus. To determine the area of sections bounded by geometric figures such as parabolas and ellipses, Archimedes broke the sections into an infinite number of rectangles and added the areas together. This is known as integration. He also anticipated the invention of differential calculus as he devised ways to approximate the slope other discoveries in geometry, mechanics and other fields.

Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier while participating in a war.

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